Digital Immigrants E-learning Study Includes LMS and WhatsApp

This post is provided by guest blogger, Michele Cote, graduate student at the University of St. Francis in Joliet, MS in Training and Development program.

An e-learning study was conducted at a Malaysian university of students aged 40 and older. Participants included a total of 14, two men and 12 women who agreed to participate in the study. Ch’ng Lay Kee (2020), termed the respondents as digital immigrants, meaning they hadn’t received computer literacy training previously, had no prior experience in e-learning, and were beginning their first semester. Several things were examined during the study which included the participants’ interaction with peers, tutors, course content, LMS, and WhatsApp. The author concluded that blended learning which includes human interaction was the best e-learning approach for digital immigrants.

The study was conducted through a two-interview process and answers were transcribed verbatim and were re-verified with the participants. Additionally, engagement observations were done during five tutorial events. Student activities were monitored daily in the LMS and WhatsApp group chats throughout the semester. Then all results were compiled and placed into a database and were examined for emerging patterns. Although there were only 14 participants, research was based on various components over a period of several months. The article would be an interesting read for those involved in the higher education of adults in an e-learning environment.   


Kee, C. (2020). Face-to-face tutorial, learning management system and WhatsApp group: How digital immigrants interact and engage in e-Learning? Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(1), 18-35.

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